Stigmella, Nepticula helbigi, Nepticula aeneella, Nepticula aeneella, Tinea penicilla, Stigmella anomalella, Nepticula

Diagnostic description: 

Diagnosis.  S. anomalella can frequently be separated from all other  unicolorous species by pale greenish bronzy forewing with distinctly darker  purplish-brown to purplish-fuscous distal part and, in the male, a patch of  darker scales at base of hindwing.  The male genitalia of anomalella and  S. centifoliella are very similar (centifoliella has fascia on forewing!),  but the larger cornuti in anomalella are pointed (blunt in centifoliella)  and the smaller cornuti sparse (numerous in centifoliella).  The female  genitalia of the two species are exceedingly similar, but anomalella can  normally be recognized by its larger accessory sac and longer ductus  spermathecae.

Morphology: 

Male. Wingspan: 5-6 mm.  Head: frontal tuft varying from  ochreous or yellowish brown to dark fuscous (in Scandinavia usually fuscous);  collar yellowish white; scape white; antenna approximately half length of  forewing.  Forewing: shining greenish bronzy, tinged with copper on base of  costa;  distal quarter well-defined purplish brown to purplish fuscous;  terminal cilia concolorous but paler at tips.  Hindwing: pale grey brown,  basal third with patch of distinctly darker scales.  Abdomen: dark fuscous  with faint purple tinge. Female. Wingspan: 5.5-6.5 mm.  Antenna slightly shorter  than half length of forewing.  Hindwing without dark scales at base, other-  wise similar to male. Male genitalia. Vinculum with distinct concavity in anterior  extension; lateral corners narrow.  Uncus with two short, rounded protuberances with heavily sclerotized margins.  Gnathos with short transverse  bar and moderately long horns.  Valva with pointed, arcuate distal process  and small rounded inner lobe, constricted at base.  Lateral arms and  transverse bar of transtilla forming a U-shaped band without sublateral  processes.  Aedaegus slightly shorter than genital capsule, vesica with 6-8  small and a few smaller spines in two groups. 
Female genitalia. Bursa copulatrix approximately threequarters length of abdomen.  Accessory sac relatively large.  Reticulate  field large, but indistinct.  Ductus spermathecae half length of bursa  copulatrix, anterior part widened and with one or two convolutions.  Corpus  bursae large, oval and almost completely covered with long and thin pectinations.  Apophyses anteriores and posteriores of equal length, straight and  slender.

Associations: 

Host plants:  Rosa sp., both wild and cultivated, Potentilla caulescens (in the S. Alps), Sanguisorba officinalis and S. minor.  Egg:  generally on the underside and close to a rib.  Larva: yellow, with a  single row of darker dorsal spots.  Mine :  a long, gradually  widening gallery which usually follows the margin of the leaf;  first part  normally filled with frass, thereafter with dense, broad central frass-line  leaving clear margins.  It is frequently not possible to separate the mine  and larvae of the three species of the anomalella group here treated.  Cocoon: red to red brown, usually found at the base of the leaf or the  leaf-stalk.

Distribution: 

From almost all districts in Denmark and in Sweden up  to Hrj.  Norway: Ak.  In southern Finland up to Sb. -  Widely distributed  in Ireland and Britain and throughout continental Europe, the Canary Islands.  Puplesis (1985a) reports the species from east USSR.

Life cycle: 

Voltinism: bivoltine; larvae often found until very late in  the autumn.  Occurs later than centifoliella.

Citation: 

Description based on Johansson and Nielsen (1990)

Notes on description: 
Tinea penicilla Thunberg. Lectotype designated by Karsholt & Nielsen (1986: 452). Nepticula aeneella Heinemann. Lectotype designated by Schoorl et al. (1985: 98). Nepticula helbigi Hartig. Holotype examined by Nieukerken & Johansson (1987: 468). Specimens of anomalella reared from Sanguisorba officinalis or S. minor have frequently been misidentified.
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith