Description. Adult. Relatively large nepticulid moths, forewing length 2 . 8 4 . 5 mm. wingspan 6.4-9.8 mm
(in Palaearctic species). Head. Antennae long, more than half length of forewing, in male with 36-58 segments, in
female with 36-49 segments. Scape and pedicel white. flagellum darker. Wings. Uniform irrorate ochreous or
yellowish-white, with darker scaling, often predominantly brown, without fascia, sometimes a small dorsal (tornal)
and/or costal spot present. Cilialine not distinct. Hindwing in male without costal bristles, hair-pencil present in most
species, surrounded by, special scales. Humeral lobe often prominent, beyond which hindwing is suddenly emarginated.
Forewing venation. R and M + Cu forming closed cell, branches R1, R2+3, R4, R5, M and Cu present. A thickened,
without anal loop. Cu and A often very long, seeming fused at tips. Male genitalia. Vinculum ring-shaped, anterior
extension not long, anteriorly convex. Tegumen slightly produced into a triangular or blunt pseuduncus. Uncus absent.
Gnathos with prominent spatulate or triangular central element, margins smooth. Valva approximately triangular, tip not
separate, usually not curved inwards; often with a mesal (inner) lobe. Aedeagus stout, with large ventral carinae, smaller
dorso-lateral carinae and usually dorsal carinae. Ventral carinae fitting by membranes to fold in dorsal surface of valvae.
Dorsal carinae palmate in some species. Vesica with numerous denticulate cornuti and usually one large cornutus or
sclerotised plate posteriorly. Female genitalia. On tergites 7 and 8, near anterior margin of T8 usually a group or row
of very long setae, T8 with many shorter setae, without scales. Anal papillae with setae. Posterior apophyses often
reaching beyond anterior apophyses. Vestibulum with indistinct paired sclerotisation, or with groups of spines, vaginal
sclerite or spiculate pouch absent. Corpus bursae long, elongate, covered with pectinations, except in anterior part,
arranged in concentric bands around long signa. Margin of signa wider than individual cells. Larva. Long yellow larvae
with strongly sclerotised head-capsule, feeding venter upwards. See Schonherr (1958) and van Nieukerken & Jansen
(in preparation). E. liebwerdella has six to eight larval instars (Schonherr, 1958).
The larvae of the species where the life history is known, are barkminers (or gall-makers in bark: E. castaneae) in Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus,
Castanea), and Ulmaceae (E. amani only). The mines are galleries. The larvae feed for one or two years and leave the mine in spring to pupate
in the soil. Adults fly throughout the summer.
Eight species are described here from the Western Palaearctic region as far east as Afghanistan, two species (E. admiranda and E. sivickisi)
were described by Puplesis (1984b) from the Eastern Palaearctic region, and twelve species were recorded from North America by Wilkinson & Newton (1981) and Wilkinson (1981), and more unnamed Nearctic species are present in collections.
The life-history became particularly well known through the excellent work of Schonherr (1958) on E. liebwerdella, and the studies of Busck (1913, 1914a,b) on American species.
Description based on E.J. van Nieukerken (1985)